1- Parallel structure:
The Parallel structure is a conjunction used to connect words
or phrases that have the same grammatical function in a sentence.
The conjunction used in this pattern are and, but, or, nor
(Called coordinating conjunctions)
2- Using paired conjunctions (correlative conjunctions):
Both … and/ Not only … but also/either … or/neither …nor
Two subjects connected by both … and take a plural verb
Both his father and his mother were absent.
When two subjects are connected by Not only … but also, either … or,
neither …nor, the subject that is closer to the verb determines
Whether the verb is singular or plural.
Not only the books, but also the copybook is lost.
Either his car or his house is sold.
Neither his friend nor his children were present.
Notice the parallel structure: the same grammatical form should
follow each word of the pair.
Both + noun + and + noun
She wasted both time and money
Not only + verb + but also + verb
He was not only exhausted but (also) injured.
Either + noun + or + noun
They will take either spelling or writing in the next exam.
Neither + adjective + nor + adjective
He spoke to say nothing. He was neither trustworthy nor reliable.
3- Connecting independent clauses:
In addition to and, but, or, and nor, three other conjunctions are
used to connect two independent clause:
So = therefore, as a result
For = because
Yet = but, nevertheless
A comma always precedes so, for, and yet when they are used as
He lost his fortune, so he became very upset.
She was crying, for she misses out.
Everything was interesting, yet none of them was interested.
4- Using so in a conversion:
With Yes/No question:
Can we see in the obscurity?
I think so
I believe so
I don’t think so
I don’t believe so
I hope so
Statement of opinion:
The bike cannot run with one wheel only.
I think so too.
The monster is not harmful.
I don’t think so either.
If the statement begins with “I think”, there
are three possible responses:
I think everything is all right.
So do I.
I do too.
I think so too.
I think the queen love the king.
5- Using No:
Not is used to make a verb negative.
She has not studied enough to hope passing the exam.
No is used as an adjective in front of a noun
He has no money.
Avoid “double negatives” in the same sentence:
He has not no money! : This sentence has no meaning.
6- Sentences with a negative word at the beginning:
This pattern is used to emphasize the negative element of the
When a negative word begins a sentence, the subject and verb
are inverted. The question word order is used.
The negative words used in this pattern are:
Never, rarely, seldom, hardly (ever), scarcely (ever), barely (ever)
Hardly ever, scarcely ever, and barely ever mean almost never.
Never will I think like that again.
Rarely have I seen him.
Hardly ever does he come on time.
Subjects and verbs are inverted after “nor”, and “and neither”
He couldn’t come yesterday, nor can he come today
She doesn’t like running, and neither does her friends.