Find the simple past and the past participle of an irregular verb. Enter its infinitive without the preposition "to":
The basics




Count /Noncount nouns and articles

1.Count and noncount nouns:


Singular: a, an, one, the + Noun A chair. An idiom. One cat. The hat Plural: Plural noun, Two, three, some, many, a lot of, a few, several, the + Plural noun Examples: -------- Chairs, Two chairs, Three chairs, … chairs, Some chairs, Many chairs, A lot of chairs, A few chairs, Several chairs, The chairs.


Singular always: Noun, Some, a lot of, Much, a little, The + Noun Furniture, Some furniture, A lot of furniture, Much furniture, A little furniture, the furniture.

2. Noncount nouns:

The whole Individual parts (Noncount) (Count) Furniture = chaires, tables, beds, etc. Mail = letters, postcards, bills, etc. Money = pennies, nickels, dollars, etc. Fruit = apples, bananas, oranges, etc. Jewelry = rings, bracelets, necklaces, etc. A language is not always logical: Fruit: Noncount, but vegetables is a count noun. (Corn: Noncount, but peas is a count noun)

3. some common noncout nouns:

Clothing – equipment – food – fruit – furniture – garbage – hardware – jewelry – machinery – mail – makeup – money: cash, change – postage – scenery – stuff – traffic – homework – housework – work – advice – information – news – history – literature – music – poetry – English – Arabic – Chinese - Grammar – slang – vocabulary- Corn – dirt – dust - f lour – grass – hair – pepper – rice – salt – sand – sugar – wheat Liquids: beer, milk, coffee, blood, cream, juice, honey, gasoline, oil, shampoo, soup, tea, water, wine. Solids and semi-solids: Bread, butter, cheese, ice, ice cream, lettuce, toast, meat, beef, chicken, fish, ham, lamb, pork, chalk, copper, cotton, glass, gold, iron, paper, rubber, silver, soap, tin, toothpaste, wood, wool, Gases: Air, fog, oxygen, pollution, smog, smoke, steam Natural phenomena: Weather, rain, snow, lightning, thunder, humidity, darkness, Light, sunshine. Abstractions: (Something that has no physical form, we cannot touch it.) Anger, beauty, confidence, courage, cowardice, education, enjoyment, entertainment, experience, fun, generosity, greed, happiness, hate, health, help, honesty, hospitality, ignorance, intelligence, justice, knowledge, laughter, love, luck, patience, peace, poverty, pride, progress, recreation, research, stupidity, time, violence, wealth

4. Nouns that can be count or noncount:

Glass – hair – iron – light – paper – time – work – coffee – chicken – fish – lamb -

5. Using units of measure with noncount nouns:

Specific quantity of a noncount noun: Some tea .Two cups of coffee. One piece of toast A unit of measure describes: - The container (a cup, a bowl), - The amount (a pound of, a quart of) or - The shape (a bar of soap, a sheet of paper) Bar, bottle, bowl, cup, glass, gallon, loaf, piece, pound, quart, sheet, spoonful, tube… Weight measure: one pound=0.45 kg Liquid measure: one quart = 0.95 liters Four quarts = one gallon = 3.8 liters 1 barel = 42 gallons 1 can = 12

    6. Guidelines for article usage:

  • 6-1 we want to make generalization:

    We use: a/an for singular count nouns, and no articles for plural count nouns & noncount nouns. Examples: -------- A day has 24 hours. (Any day, all days, days in general) Days make months (no article with a plural count noun: generalization) We have good news (any news, all news, news in general)
  • 6-2 we want talk about something or
    someone that is not specific:

    Examples: -------- I bought a pen (one pen out of the whole group of pens) I bought some pens She got a little information. We can use an expression of quantity: Several, a lot of, a few, many, or some for count nouns in plural, and a lot of, some, much, a little with noncount nouns
  • 6-3 We want to talk about something or someone that is

    specific: (For both the speaker & the listener) We use THE. Examples: -------- The sun shines every day. (Singular count noun) The vegetables that I ate are very good. (Plural count noun) The fruit that I bought come from Florida. (Noncount noun) We use also THE when we mention a noun the second time: Examples: -------- I saw a bird and a man. The man was singing. That are the same issues.

7. Using expressions of quantity as pronouns:

Expressions of quantity are words that describe the number or amount of a noun. Examples: Some, any, a little, a few, many, much, a lot (of), a couple (of), two, three, several, etc… They are usually used in front of a noun. They can be used alone - without a noun - when the meaning is clear, when both speaker and listener know what the expression of quantity refers to. These expressions function as pronouns. Examples: -------- Do you have any comment? No, I don’t have any. Ask her, maybe she has some. Have you ever seen a lot of snow? Yes I have. I have seen a lot just this month. Any is used in questions and negative sentences. Some is used in affirmative ones. Of is omitted when "a lot of" or "a couple of" function alone as pronouns. It is included if a lot or a couple is followed by a non/pronoun. Examples: -------- I don’t have any patience. I lost a lot of it. But she has a lot. What's about time? - I wasted a lot. Do you have some ideas?. I have some.

8. Nonspecific object pronouns: Some, any, and one:

Examples: -------- Would you like to give some sheet of paper? (Nonspecific) No, I cannot. I haven’t any. Safia has some. Where are the books that were on my desk? (Specific) I’m sorry. I haven’t seen them. How much earthquake have you ever seen? (Nonspecific) I saw one last year in Turkey. Did you see the sunrise yesterday? (Specific) No. But safia has. She has seen it. Would you like some coffee? (Nonspecific) No. Thanks. I just had some. I don’t want any right now. What about your coffee? (Specific) I drank it.
  • Object pronouns for plural count nouns: Nonspecific: some or any Specific: them
  • Object pronouns for singular count nouns: Nonspecific: one Specific: it, her, him
  • Object pronouns noncount nouns & count nouns: Nonspecific: some or any Specific: it



Count nouns:

A noun, a noun, nouns: a dog, an idiom, idioms: Singular and plural.

Noncount noun :

Noun : fruit. Always singular, no article before a noun.


Count nouns: singular and plural.

A, an, two, three, …some, a lot of, many, a few, …

Non count nouns:

Always singular, article before a noun. Some, a lot of, much, a little.


Count nouns:

The noun, the nouns. The book, the books

Non count nouns:

The noun. The fruit.
  • Use THE when a noun is mentioned for the second time.
  • When a lot and a couple function alone as pronouns, of is not included.
  • It is included when they are followed by a noun or pronoun. She has a lot of friends. I don’t have a lot.
  • One is a number. It is used with singular count noun.
  • Noncount abstractions: Abstract nouns are noncount nouns. They are some of them: patience, humor, honesty, greed, anger, deceitful, happiness, health, prosperity, violence, hanger, famine, luck, …

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