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Find the simple past and the past participle of an irregular verb. Enter its infinitive without the preposition "to":
                   
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Gerunds and infinitives


 
1. Introduction:
1.1 Example: I am waiting. Waiting = the present participle, used in the present progressive. I do not enjoy waiting. Waiting = the gerund , used as the object of the verb. 1.2 Gerund: I enjoy something. Something = noun = object of the verb. The object of a verb is usually a noun or pronoun. But it can also be a gerund. A gerund is the Ėing form of the verb. It is used as a noun. I enjoy doing something. Doing = gerund. It is the object of the verb: enjoy. Doing something: gerund phrase The Ėing form of the verb can be: The present participle (used in the present progressive). I am writing. The gerund (used as the object of the verb) I enjoy reading. 1.3 Infinitives: I want something. Something = noun = object of the verb I want to do something. To do: Infinitive = object of the verb To do something: infinitive phrase. The object of the verb can also be an infinitive. An infinitive is: to + the simple form of the verb.
2. Verb + gerund:
2.1 Common verbs followed by gerunds: Enjoy - finish - stop - quit - mind - postpone = put off - keep - keep on - consider - think about - discuss - talk about I postponed handing in my homework. In special circumstance, stop can be followed by an infinitive of purpose: In order to: I stop to do this = I stop doing in order to do this. Negative form: not + gerund. I considered not going to this market. 2.2 Go + -ING: Go is followed by a gerund in certain idiomatic expressions about activities. Did you go swimming? I went shopping. She hasnít gone studying. Common expressions with GO + - ING: Go booting - go bowling - go camping - go dancing - go fishing - go hiking - go jogging - go running - go sailing - go shopping - go sightseeing - go skating - go skiing - go skydiving - go swimming,
3. Verb + Infinitive:
Some verbs are followed by an infinitive. He pretends to be a police officer. But he was not. They mean to see and not to understand. Negative form: not + infinitive. I have decided not to go to this market. Common verbs followed by infinitives: Want - need - would like - would love - hope - expect - plan - intend - mean - decide - promise - offer - agree - refuse - seem - appear - pretend - forget - learn (how) - try - canít afford - canít wait - Ö
4. Verb + Gerund or Infinitive:
Some verbs are followed by either a gerund or an infinitive. I like to travel = I like traveling I continue to search = I continue searching Common verbs followed by either an infinitive or a gerund: Begin - start - continue - like - love - hate - canít stand -. But: would like & would love are followed by infinitive only. Iíd like to know all English grammar.
5. Uncompleted Infinitive:
I want to buy a new car. But I canít afford to. Canít afford to = uncompleted infinitive. I couldnít stay. I didnít have to. When the meaning is clearly understood, an infinitive phrase is not completed following TO. Uncompleted infinitive are also common with these auxiliaries: Have to, be going to, used to and ought to.
6. preposition + gerund:
He insisted on coming with us He is excited about going with us She apologized for being late. I am looking forward to hearing from you. A preposition is followed by a gerund, not an infinitive.
7. using by and with
To express how something is done: He turned on his computer by pushing the button: By + gerund She traveled by bus: by + noun. They cut meat with a knife: with + noun By + gerund is used to express how something is done. By or with + noun is also used to express the means used to do something. With is used for instruments or parts of the body. With = by using. By foot = on foot By check, in cash By hand = made by a person, not by a machine. With my hand: with a part of a body
8. Using gerunds as subject.
Using It + Infinitive: Reading books is fun. Reading = the subject of the sentence (Gerund is always singular) It is fun to read books. It and to read books have the same meanings. Itís less common to use an infinitive as the subject of a sentence: To read books is fun.
9. It + Infinitive: using (FOR someone):
It is + adjective + for (someone) + infinitive. You have to wake up early in the morning. Itís necessary for you to wake up early in the morning.
10. Infinitive of purpose:
Using In order to: I go to school because I want to learn English. I go to school in order to learn English. I go to school to learn English. (In order to is omitted: the meaning is the same) In order to: expresses purpose. In order to: answers the question: Why? For can be followed by a gerund. But in the case of purpose, it is followed by a noun phrase. I write down to remember. I write down for knowledge. 11. Using Infinitives with TOO & ENOUGH: The weather is too cold for him to go outside. She doesnít have enough time to go dancing. He is not reliable enough to give trust. Too + adjective (for someone) + infinitive. Enough + noun + infinitive (enough can follow a noun) Adjective + enough + infinitive. In the speakerís mind, the use of too implies a negative result.


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