I am waiting.
Waiting = the present participle, used in the present progressive.
I do not enjoy waiting.
Waiting = the gerund , used as the object of the verb.
I enjoy something.
Something = noun = object of the verb.
The object of a verb is usually a noun or pronoun. But it
can also be a gerund.
A gerund is the Ėing form of the verb. It is used as a noun.
I enjoy doing something.
Doing = gerund. It is the object of the verb: enjoy.
Doing something: gerund phrase
The Ėing form of the verb can be:
The present participle (used in the present progressive).
I am writing.
The gerund (used as the object of the verb)
I enjoy reading.
I want something. Something = noun = object of the verb
I want to do something. To do: Infinitive = object of the verb
To do something: infinitive phrase.
The object of the verb can also be an infinitive.
An infinitive is: to + the simple form of the verb.
2. Verb + gerund:
2.1 Common verbs followed by gerunds:
Enjoy - finish - stop - quit - mind - postpone = put off - keep -
keep on - consider - think about - discuss - talk about
I postponed handing in my homework.
In special circumstance, stop can be followed by an infinitive of purpose:
In order to: I stop to do this = I stop doing in order to do this.
Negative form: not + gerund.
I considered not going to this market.
2.2 Go + -ING:
Go is followed by a gerund in certain idiomatic expressions
Did you go swimming?
I went shopping.
She hasnít gone studying.
Common expressions with GO + - ING:
Go booting - go bowling - go camping - go dancing - go fishing -
go hiking - go jogging - go running - go sailing - go shopping -
go sightseeing - go skating - go skiing - go skydiving -
3. Verb + Infinitive:
Some verbs are followed by an infinitive.
He pretends to be a police officer. But he was not.
They mean to see and not to understand.
Negative form: not + infinitive.
I have decided not to go to this market.
Common verbs followed by infinitives:
Want - need - would like - would love - hope - expect - plan -
intend - mean - decide - promise - offer - agree - refuse - seem -
appear - pretend - forget - learn (how) - try - canít afford -
canít wait - Ö
4. Verb + Gerund or Infinitive:
Some verbs are followed by either a gerund or an infinitive.
I like to travel = I like traveling
I continue to search = I continue searching
Common verbs followed by either an infinitive or a gerund:
Begin - start - continue - like - love - hate - canít stand -.
But: would like & would love are followed by infinitive only.
Iíd like to know all English grammar.
5. Uncompleted Infinitive:
I want to buy a new car. But I canít afford to.
Canít afford to = uncompleted infinitive.
I couldnít stay. I didnít have to.
When the meaning is clearly understood, an infinitive phrase is
not completed following TO.
Uncompleted infinitive are also common with these auxiliaries:
Have to, be going to, used to and ought to.
6. preposition + gerund:
He insisted on coming with us
He is excited about going with us
She apologized for being late.
I am looking forward to hearing from you.
A preposition is followed by a gerund, not an infinitive.
7. using by and with
To express how something is done:
He turned on his computer by pushing the
button: By + gerund
She traveled by bus: by + noun.
They cut meat with a knife: with + noun
By + gerund is used to express how something is done.
By or with + noun is also used to express the means used to
With is used for instruments or parts of the body.
With = by using.
By foot = on foot
By check, in cash
By hand = made by a person, not by a machine.
With my hand: with a part of a body
8. Using gerunds as subject.
Using It + Infinitive:
Reading books is fun. Reading = the subject of the sentence
(Gerund is always singular)
It is fun to read books.
It and to read books have the same meanings.
Itís less common to use an infinitive as the subject of a sentence:
To read books is fun.
9. It + Infinitive: using (FOR someone):
It is + adjective + for (someone) + infinitive.
You have to wake up early in the morning.
Itís necessary for you to wake up early in the morning.