1-1 To be
1-1-1 The Present
I am = I'm
He/She/It is = He/She/It 's
We/You/They / are = We/You/They/ 're
He/She/It 's no
I am not = I'm not
He/She/It is not = He/She/It isnít
We/You/They / are not
We/You/They / Ďre not = We/You/They aren't
The use of apostrophe is called Contraction:
We can contract auxiliaries with pronouns and adverbs:
You're right. Everything's going okay.
That is: That's. There is. Thereís. Who is? Whoís? What is? Whatís?
Where is? Where's ?. How is? Howís?
1-1-2 The past:
We/You/They / were
I/He/She/It was not = I/He/She/It wasnít
We/You/They / were not
1-1- 3 There + (verb to be)
There is = there's
There has been
There have been
There will be
There is not = there isn't = Thereís not
There are not = There aren't
There was not = There wasn't
There hasn't been
There haven't been
There won't be
is there ...?
Are there .... ?
Has been there ...?
Have been there ... ?
Will be there...?
Was there an earthquake yesterday?
- Yes! There have been lots of damages!
Maybe, there will be another tomorrow!
1-2 To have
1-2-1 The Present
I/We/You/ They / have = I/We/You/ They/ 've
He/She/ It has = He/She/It's
I/We/You/They/ do not have = I/We/You/They / donít have
He/She/It does not have = He/She/It doesn't have
Do I/ We/You/They have?
Does He/She/It have?
Note: Do not use have not (or havenít) for negative sentence or
have you Ö ? For a question. They are related to the present
perfect and the present perfect progressive.
Where have you been?
I havenít seen him for ages.
Has he been living there?
1-2-2 The simple past:
I/He/She/It /We/You/They Had
I/He/She/It/We/You/They did not have ( or Didnít have)
Did I/He/She/It/We/You/They have?
Note: Do not use had not (or hadnít) for negative sentence or had you Ö ? For the
question. They are related to the past perfect and the past perfect progressive.
In the present and the simple past, to have is a verb.
2-1 Can (present):
Could (past & future)
I/He/She/It/ We/You/They Can/Could + Base form
I/He/She/It/ We/You/They / cannot (canít) could not (couldnít)+ base form
can/could I/He/She/It / We/You/They + base form?
Can = know how to do, It's possible to do it. Could is the past of can
and couldn't (could not) the past of can't. (Could is used also for the future)
Can I ...? When we ask if it is ok to do something.
Can I have ...? To ask for something.
Can you ...? Or could you ...? When we ask people to do something
2-2 May and Might
May / might: Perhaps ...
Will Ö : It's possible that something will happen.
I am going to buy this book (sure).
I may buy this book (possible, maybe)
I/He/She/It/ We/You/They May/might + Base form
I/He/She/It/ We/You/They may not+ base form
May I/He/She/It/We/They + base form?
May I = can I = is it ok to do something?
2-3 Have to / Must
Have to = It's necessary, obliged to do something.
I'll be late for class tomorrow. I have to go to school.
I/We/You/They have to + base form
He/She/It has to + base form
He/She/It doesnít have to+ base form
I/We/You/They don't have to + base form
does He/She/It/ have to + base form?
Do We/You/They have to + base form?
He/She/It/ I/We/You/They had to + Base form?
He/She/It/ I/We/You/They didnít have to + Base form
did /I/We/You/TheyHe/She/It/ have to + base form?
Have to do something = must to do it = It's necessary to do it.
Especially In spoken English, have to is more often used than must.
I don't have to wait it. May I wait for him?
2-4 Should = ought to
I/He/She/It/ We/You/They Should + Base form
I/He/She/It/ We/You/They should not (shouldnít)+ base form
Should I/He/She/It/We/You/They + base form?
What should I do now?
You shouldn't listen to him so much.
Do you think I should go there? - No I think you shouldn't.
I ought to think very carefully about that.
(Someone) should do something = It is a good thing to do = The right thing to do.
We often use should with think.
Ought to (with to) = should
2-5-1 Would like:
Would you like ... = Do you want.
- Would you like...? To offer
- Would you like to ...? To invite someone.
I'd like is a polite way of saying " I want "
Would you like some coffee? (An offer, now)
Do you like coffee? (Do you enjoy drinking coffee?) (En general)
2-5-2 Would rather
I/He/She/It/We/You/TheyWould ('d ) rather + Base form
I/He/She/It/We/You/They would rather not (íd rather not)+ base form
Would I/He/She/It/We/You/They rather + base form?
I would rather stay home, I'm exhausted.
What would you rather do after her call?
I 'd rather keep this car than buy another one.
I'd rather = I would rather = I'd prefer.
I would rather do, NOT I would rather to do.
I prefer to do something.
We can say: I 'd rather.... than...
2-5-3 Used to
We use this expression only in the past. Used is the paste simple of to use.
He used to write letters, but right now he uses e-mails.
We use this expression for:
- An activity that we did regularly in the past (like a habit), or
- A situation that was true in the past.
But it is usually not true now.
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