He broke her car.:
He broke what she had the most expensive.:
She doesnít know if he is died.:
She knows that the car is broken.:
A phrase =group of related words.
It does not contain a subject and a verb.
A clause = group of related words.
It contains a subject and a verb.
A noun clause is a dependent clause and cannot
stand alone as a sentence. It must connect o an
independent clause (a main clause)
A noun clause can begin with a question word, if or that.
2. Noun clauses that begin with a question word:
The following question words can be used to introduce
a noun clause:
When, where, why, how, who, whom, what, whish, whose.
Where does she study?
I can find where she studies.
What time is it?
I donít know what time it is.
Why did they leave?
I havenít any idea why they left.
What did he say?
Do you know what he said?
The question word order (do, did, does) is not
used in the noun clause.
3. Noun clauses with who what whose + BE:
Who is this boy? (Verb subject)
I know who this boy is.
Whose book is this? (Verb subject)
I donít know whose book this is.
A noun or pronoun that follows the main verb BE in
a question comes in front of BE in a noun clause.
Who is in the car? (Verb subject)
Do you know who is in the car?
Whose book is on the table? (Verb subject)
I know whose book on the table.
A prepositional phrase does not come in front
of BE in a noun clause.
Who comes to the party?
Tell us who comes to the party.
Can you please tell me what happened?
When the subject of a question is the question word: who
& What, usual question word order is no used. In this case
the word order is the same in both the question and the
4. Noun clauses which begin with IF or WHETHER:
Are you ready?
I donít know if you are ready. (Object)
Did you write a letter?
Tell us if you wrote a letter.
Does she like speaking ?
I wonder if she likes speaking.
When a YES/NO question is changed to a noun clause,
IF is used to introduce a clause.
We donít know whether she speaks Spanish.
We donít know whether she speaks Spanish or not.
We donít know whether or not she speaks Spanish.
"Or not" can come at the end of the noun clause.
"Or not" comes immediately after whether, but not after if.
5. Noun clauses which begin with THAT:
I think that the test was complicated.
(=Noun clause = Object of the verb think)
The word THAT introduces a noun clause.
That-clauses are frequently used as the objects of verbs
which express mental activity.
She hopes he can come over.
The word that is often omitted, especially in speaking.
Common verbs followed by that-Clauses
Assume that - Believe that - Discover that - Dream that -
Guess that - Hear that - Hope that - Know that - Learn that -
Notice that - Predict that - Prove that - Realize that -
Suppose that - Suspect that - Think that Ė
Agree that - Conclude that - Decide that - Demonstrate that -
Doubt that - Fear that - Feel that - Figure out that - Find out that -
Forget that - Imagine that - Indicate that - Observe that - Presume
that - Pretend that - Read that - Recall that - Recognize that - Regret
that - Remember - Reveal that - Show that - Teach that - Understand
that - Ö
Other uses of that-clauses:
They are sure that the host arrives.
She was disappointed that he didnít come.
He is sorry she comes.
It is a fact trouble came again.
It is true the meaning wasnít clear.
That-clauses can follow certain expressions with:
BE + adjective or BE + past participle.
That can be omitted.
True & a fact are very common expressions.
Common expressions followed by that-clauses:
Be afraid that - Be aware that - Be certain that - Be convinced that -
Be disappointed that - Be glad that - Be happy that - Be pleased that -
Be sorry that - Be sure that - Be surprised that - Be worried that - It
is true that Ö - It is a fact that Ö
Be amazed that - Be angry that - Be ashamed that - Be astounded
that - Be delighted that - Be fortunate that - Be furious that -
Be horrified that - Be impressed that - Be lucky that -
Be positive that - Be proud that - Be sad that - Be shocked -
Be terrified that - Be thrilled that - Ö
6. Substituting SO for that-clauses
in conversational responses:
Is he here?
I think so. (So = that he is here)
Does she think like you?
I believe so.
Did they see you?
I hope so.
Think, believe, and hope are followed by SO in
conversational English in response to a YES/NO question.
So replaces that-clause.
Are you ready?
I donít think so. (I donít think that I am ready)
I donít believe so.
I hope not.
Note the negative usage of think, believe and hope.
Guess so, guess not - suppose, suppose not -
be afraid so, be afraid not.
7. Questions words followed by infinitives:
She doesnít know what she should do.
She doesnít know what to do.
He told him where he could find a key.
He told him where to find a key.
Tell her how she can solve this issue.
Tell her who can solve this issue.
They canít decide whether they should go or stay home.
They canít decide whether to go or (to) stay home.
Questions words and whether may be followed by an infinitive.
The meaning expressed by the infinitive is either should or can/could.
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