Nouns and pronouns
1- Objects of prepositions:
Safia puts her book on the desk.
Subject verb preposition object of preposition
This sentence has a prepositional phrase. On the desk is a prepositional
phrase.It consists of preposition and an object of a preposition.
The object of preposition is a noun.
Astronauts walked on the moon in 1969.
Place is mentioned before time.
2- Using adjectives to describe nouns:
It’s a good book.
Good : describes the noun book. It’s an adjective.
The adjective modifies noun ( modify = change a little ).
An adjective changes a meaning of a noun by giving more information
about it .
The short woman wore an old dress.
An adjective is neither singular nor plural. It doesn’t have a plural form.
Roses are beautiful flowers.
Adjectives can come immediately before nouns. They can also follow
main verb BE.
She is beautiful.
-3 using nouns as adjectives :
He has a flower garden
The shoe store
Sometimes, words that are usually used as nouns, are used as adjectives.
It used in singular form.
-4 personal pronouns : subjects and objects :
Subject pronouns : I, you, she, he, it , we, they
Object pronouns : me, you, her, him, it, us, them
A pronoun refers to a noun. It is used in place of a noun.
He has a new blue bicycle. He bought it yesterday.
A pronoun can refer to a single noun. But It can refer to the whole
noun phrase ( new blue bicycle).
Safia and I are planning to solve some problems. Some of them
are difficult for Safia and me ( for us).
Sometimes nouns and pronouns are connected by and. Use :
- Subject pronoun with a noun subject and
- Object pronoun with a noun object.
-5 possessive nouns :
’S (apostrophe and S are used with noun to show possession)
-6 Possessive pronouns and adjectives :
Remind that :
Possessive pronouns : mine, yours, hers, his, ours, theirs.
Possessive adjectives : my, your, his, her, its, our, their.
A possessive pronoun is used alone.
A possessive adjective is used only with a noun following it.
They are your ideas.
They are yours.
-7 A friend of possessive :
My friend = the only one
A friend of mine = one of my friends, but not my only friend.
A friend of possessive pronoun is a special or idiomatic expression.
It is used to specify one friend among many friends.
She is a friend of bill’s. ( one of bill’s friends)
The expression is also used in plural.
The Blumenfields are friends of us
-8 Reflexive pronouns:
They end in self/selves : myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself,
ourselves, yourselves, themselves.
They are used when the subject and the object are the same person.
By + reflexive pronouns = alone.
I enjoyed myself at the fair.
Enjoy and a few other verbs are commonly followed by
a reflexive pronoun.
Believe( in yourself )- blame - cut - enjoy - fell sorry -
help - hurt - give youself (Sth) - introduce - kill -
pinch - be proud of - take care of - talk to -
teach - tell - work for - wish Yourself (luck)
-9 Singular forms of other : Another, the other:
Another = an & other in one word.
Another means one more out of a group of similar items
The other = the last one in a specific group. The only one that remains from a
given number of similar items.
Another and the other can be used as a pronoun alone or as an adjective in
front of a noun or the word One.
Example: One book
– Another book – another one – another
- The other book – the other one – the other.
-10 plural forms of other : others, the others:
Other (s) means several more out of a group of similar items.
Other and the other can be used as a pronoun alone or as an adjective in
front of a plural noun or the word Ones.
The others = the last ones in a specific group. The remains from a given
number of similar items.
- Other books – other ones - others
- The other books - the other ones – the others.
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