Opposition and condition:
Unless he is deceitful, she will trust him.
Even though:Even though he was deceitful, she trusts him.
Although:Although he was deceitful, she trusts him.
Though:Though he was deceitful, she trusts him.
But…anyway: He was deceitful, but she trusts him anyway.
But …still:He was deceitful, but she still trusts him.
Yet …still:He was deceitful, yet she still trusts him.
Nevertheless:He was deceitful; nevertheless, she trusts him.
Nonetheless:He was deceitful. Nonetheless, she trusts him.
However:He was deceitful; however, she trusts him.
Despite:She trusts him despite his behavior.
In spite of: She trusts him in spite of his behavior.
Part I: Opposition:
I-1- Showing opposition: Unexpected result:
I-2- Showing direct opposition:
- Adverb clauses:
Whereas: He is nice, whereas she is harmful.
While: He is nice, while she is harmful.
Whereas and while are
used to show direct opposition:
This is exactly the opposite of that. Whereas and while
may be used with the idea of either clause with no difference in meaning.
She is harmful, while he is nice.
Whereas she is harmful, he is nice.
A comma is used even if the adverb clause comes second.
But: He is nice, but she is harmful.
She is harmful, but he is nice.
However: He is nice; however, she is harmful.
She is harmful; howeve, he is nice.
On the other hand: He is nice. She, on the other hand, is harmful.
She is harmful. He, on the other hand, is nice.
It does not make any difference which idea comes first and
which idea comes second. The two ideas are directly opposite.
- Using on the contrary:
On the contrary is a transition. It gives the idea that: Just the
opposite is true. It frequently follows a negative sentence.
She is not harmful. On the contrary, she is nice.
Part II : Condition:
II-1- Expressing conditions in adverb clauses:
He will come if there is a place for him.
If the car is repaired, she will drive to Connecticut.
he simple present (not the simple future) is used in “if clause”.
Unless he comes, she will call him.
Unless = if not
Unless he comes = If he doesn’t come.
The parade will be cancelled only if it rains.
Rain is the only condition under which the parade
will be cancelled. Only this condition will cause the
parade to be cancelled.
Whether or not:
The parade will be cancelled whether or not it rains.
The parade will be cancelled whether it rains or not.
If it rains the parade will be cancelled. If it doesn’t rains
the parade will be cancelled. In other words, rain does not matter.
Even if he comes, she will stay.
Even if = whether or not.
Maybe he will comes, but the fact that he comes will not
make any difference. Under any conditions, even he will
come, she will stay.
Providing /provided (that):
Providing = provided = if
Providing (that) / Provided (that) she comes, he will leave.
In case (that)/ In the event (that):
In case the meeting is adjourning, he will come anyway.
In the event that she needs help, he will be helpful.
II-2- Expressing negative conditions:
If they don’t hurry, she will come tomorrow. (1)
= Unless they hurry, she will come tomorrow. (2)
Unless = if not
She had better know; otherwise, she will have problems. (3)
Otherwise = If she doesn’t.
She had better know, or (else) she will have problems. (4)
(1), (2), (3), (4) have the same meaning.
Part III :Other relationships:
There were some mistakes in his item. For example, a verb
takes an “s” after the subject he, she, or it in the present tense.
There were some mistakes in his item. A regular verb, for instance,
Takes an “ed” in the simple past and past participle.
For example and for instance, used in transition, have the same
Here were some interesting sites on the Internet, e.g.,
Yahoo.com and download.com.
There were some mistakes in his item; e.g., the simple present, not
the simple future, is used in “if clause”.
e.g. = for example. It’s an abbreviation of the Latin phrase:
Note that a semicolon is used if a complete clause follows e.g.
She went shopping and bought some food, such as milk and bread.
Some field of study, such as physics and mathematics, are pure science.
Languages such as English Arabic are interesting.
Such languages as Spanish and French come from Latin.
Such as = for example
III-2 Continuing the same idea:
Moreover, furthermore, in addition, and
besides are transitions.
They mean also.
The first course was very interesting. There was grammar, listening,
and phonetic. Furthermore, there were spelling, reading and lecture.
The woman was exceptional. In addition to (besides) an excellent
accent, she had an amazing and special voice.
In addition to and besides are used as prepositions. They are
followed by an object.
Besides means in addition.
Beside means next to.
She sat beside her friend.
Abder. Ajaja - © - All rights reserved 2002.