- Present continuous (no plan):
The structure is:
It is the structure of the present continuous, but we add:
|(Subject)|| (Auxiliary verb to BE) || (MAIN VERB-ING)|| (FUTURE WORD)|
| He|| is ||studying ||next year|
- A future word, or
- A clause to understand the future from the context.
I'm going to swim tomorrow ( future time word: Tomorrow)
I'm flying to Chicago ( future : by the context)
You are meeting someone tomorrow.
I'm staying home tonight.
He is wearing new shoes when you see him.
Some future words:
Tomorrow, next month, in October, on Monday, etc
- Present continuous (with plan):
We use the present continuous for the future when
we have planned to do something before we speak. We
have already made a decision and a firm plan or program
We're eating in a restaurant tonight. We've already booked the table.
When are you starting your new study?
2. The second form (going to):
The syntax is :
Subject + (am, is are) +going to + base form of the verb
|POSITIVE ||NEGATIVE ||QUESTION||
|I am || I am not ||Am I |
|He/She/It is ||He/She/It is not ||Is He/She/It |
|We/You/They / are ||We/You/They / are not ||Are |
|going to + verb|| going to + verb|| going to + verb ?|
What are you going to do this autumn?
It's going to speak English fluently.
We use this form for the future:
- When we have the intention.
- When we make a prediction (clear now that something is sure to happen).
We use going to when we have the intention to do something
before we speak. We have already made a decision before
He has won the race; he is going to flight to Saskatoon.
We're not going to paint our bedroom tomorrow.
When are you going to go on holiday?
I bought some wood because I am going to build a bookcase
for my apartment.
The prediction is based on present evidence. We are saying
what we think will happen. We have a good idea of what is going to happen.
The sky is very black. It's going to snow.
It's 8.30! You're going to miss the train!
He broke her car. She isn't going to be very happy!
Will is used to express the future.
Negative form : won't = will not
Question : will you be there tomorrow ?
Yes , I will
No, I won't
I'm going to go to class tomorrow morning.
I will go to bed.
What are you going to do tomorrow morning ?
I won't be home around seven this evening.
- Will is usually contracted with :
- Pronouns in both speech and informal writing.
- Nouns in speech, but usually not in writing.
- Time expressions such as today, this morning, this afternoon, this
evening, tonight, this week, this month, this year, this semester.
- Be "going to" and "will" are the same when they are used to make
predictions about the future.
He is going to succeed because he works hard. (1)
He will succeed because he works hard. (2)
(1) and (2) have the same meaning.
- Do not use "Will" to express a preconceived plan,
use "Be going" instead.
- Will ( not be going to) is used to volunteer or express willingness.
This suitcase is too heavy for you to carry alone. I'll help you.
Could someone get me a glass of water ?
- Certainly, I'll get you one.
Can I borrow this book ?
Sure , I'll give it to you. But I need it back soon.
I'll return it to you tomorrow. Okay ?
- Using probably with Will :
Probably comes :
Between Will and the main verb In affirmative sentence.
In front of Won't, or more formally between will and not In a negative sentence.
After the subject In questions
She will probably come this afternoon.
She probably won't change her mind = She will probably not
change her mind.
Will you probably come back over holiday ?
4. The fourth form: using the future time and If clauses
----Now------BEFORE----*IF, WHEN, AS SOON AS *---AFTER------Future------
Use the simple present in future time clauses and If clauses.
- Expressing future time in time clauses:
Before I go to class tomorrow, I am going to buy a book.
Future time clause Main clause
After I finish my homework, I am going to go to bed. (1)
I am going to go to bed after I finish my homework. (2)
(1) and (2) are the same.
As soon as the teacher gets there, class will begin
- Expressing future time with If-clauses:
If it rains tomorrow, I'm going to stay home. (1)
If-clause Main clause
I'm going to stay home If it rains tomorrow. (2)
(1) and (2) are the same.
5. The fifth form: Using the simple present
Use the simple present to express futur time :
The simple present can express the future time when events are on
a definite schedule or timetable.
Her new job starts on April.
There is a meeting at ten.
Only a few verbs are used in the simple present to express a future time.
The most common are :
be,arrive, leave, start, begin, end, finish, open, close.
6. The sixth form: Using Intend, plan and hope verbs
We use the verbs: Intend, plan, hope when we
plan for future activities.
I'm intending, I intend to move somewere .
I'm planning, I plan to move …
I'm hoping, I hope to move …
Intend, plan, and hope are used in present tenses to expesspresent
ideas about future activities.
These verbs are followed by an infinitive ( = to + the simple form of a verb)
7. The seventh form: Immediate future : Using Be about to
She is going to school. She has prepared for the test. Her friend is
waiting for her to give her a ride. She is about to go to School.
(she is going to leave sometime in the next few minutes).
The idiom "be about to do something" expresses an activity that will
happen in the immediate future ( usually in 5 minutes) .
8.The eighth form: Using shall
Shall ( for I and we) is infrequent and very formal.