The Passive form
1- Its form:
Be + -ed (past participle)
- The form is built by a conjugation of the auxiliary verb (BE).
- The main verb is the past participle.
- In the active voice, the object receives the action of the verb.
- In the passive voice, the subject receives the action of the verb:
- The object of the active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb.
- Only transitive verbs are used in the passive.
- The progressive forms of the present perfect,
past perfect, future, and future perfect are not
used in the passive.
|Present ||It is reached |
| Past ||It was reached |
| Future ||It will be reached |
|Conditional ||It would be reached |
| Present ||It is being reached |
| Past||It was being reached |
| Future ||It will be being reached |
| Conditional ||It would be being reached |
| Present||It has been reached |
| Past ||It had been reached |
| Future ||It will have been reached |
| Conditional ||It would have been reached |
We use the passive when:
We want to make the active object more important
We do not know the active subject.
They are known.
They were born in Caracas.
The passive verb is followed with a “by phrase” only if it is important
to know who perform an action. Usually, The “ by phrase” is not used.
The passive is most frequently used when it is not known or not
important to know exactly who performs an action.
| Present||It has been being reached |
| Past ||It had been being reached |
| Future ||It will have been being reached |
| Conditional||It would have been being reached |
3- Stative passive:
We use the past participle as an adjective:
The pen is broken.
“Broken” functions as an adjective.
Some idiomatic expressions use the passive form.
These sentences have no equivalent active sentences.
It is gone
He is exhausted
She is lost
4- The passive and adjectives with: GET
Get may be followed by certain adjectives. In this case
get = become.
Angry, anxious, bald, big, busy, chilly, cold dark, empty, fat, full, good,
heavy, hot, hungry, late, light, mad, nervous, old, rich, sick, sleepy, tall,
thirsty, warm, well, wet.
They got rich.
Get may also be followed by a past participle, which
functions as an adjective and describes the subject.
She is getting married this week.
5- Used to and Be used to:
"Used to" expresses a habit, activity or situation that existed
in the past but which no longer exists. (Not anymore)
She used to write items.
Be used to and be accustomed to are followed by a
gerund or by a noun object.
They are used to (accustomed to) speaking very quickly.
He is used to (accustomed to) cold weather.
Be used to = be accustomed to = usual and normal
= not strange.
Get used to and get accustomed to give the same
meaning. In this case get means become
He got used to hot weather.
6- Participial adjectives:
|- ING (active meaning) ||-ED (passive meaning)|
|She bored her friends. ||Her friends were bored. (By her)|
|She was a boring girl. ||They are bored friends.|
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