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Find the simple past and the past participle of an irregular verb. Enter its infinitive without the preposition "to":
                   
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Wish & IF


 

1- Expressing wishes about the present and future:

The true situation:Expressing a wish about that situation:
(Present) (Simple past)
She doesnít see him. She wishes (that) she saw him.
They are not present. They wish (that) they were present.
He can understand. He wishes he couldnít understand.
I donít have time. I wish I had time.
I have been worried. I wish I hadnít been worried.
He has to wait. He wishes he didnít have to wait.
She is absent. She wishes she werenít absent.
We make wishes when we want the reality to be different, to be exactly the opposite (or contrary) of the situation. A noun clause followed WISH. The verbs used in the noun clause are special. When we express a wish in the present, we use the past verb form (simple past). Note: ---- WERE is used for all subject (I, you, she/he/it we, they).
I donít have time. I wish I had time.
I donít have time, but I wish I did.
She is absent. She wishes she werenít absent.
She is absent, but She wishes she werenít.
He can understand. He wishes he couldnít understand.
He can understand, but He wishes he couldnít.
When we use a comma and but (, but), we use the appropriate auxiliary.

2- Expressing wishes about the past:

When we express a wish in the past, we use the past perfect.
The true situation: Expressing a wish about that situation:
(Simple past) (Past perfect)
She didnít see him. She wishes (that) she had seen him.
They were not present. They wish (that) they hadnít been present.
He could understand. He wishes he couldnít understand. (?)
I didnít have time. I wish I had had time.
I had not time. I wish I hadnít had time.
He had to wait. He wishes he hadnít had to wait.
She was absent. She wishes she hadnít been absent.
When we use a comma and but (, but), we use the appropriate auxiliary. I didnít have time. I wish I had had time. I didnít have time, but I wish I had. She was absent. She wishes she hadnít been absent. She was absent, but She wishes she hadnít.

3- Contrary-to-fact in the present/Future:

If is used to talk about situation that are contrary to fact, situation that are the opposite of the true situation. True situation: She doesnít have time. Making a wish: She wishes she had time Contrary-to-fact situations: If she had time, she could/would stay with us. = She could/would stay with us if she had time. Conditional sentence = If-clause, result clause = Result clause If clause Would: Wants to = intended or desired Could: Expressing a possibility, possible options = would be able to. True situation: We arenít ready yet. Making a wish: We wish we were ready. Contrary-to-fact situations: If we were ready, we could/would go right now. Contrary-to-fact sentences with an if-clause and a result clause are called conditional sentences. Special verb forms are used: The simple past tense is used to discuss a present or future situation in an if-clause. Would or could + a simple form of the verb is used in the result clause. True situation: She doesnít have time. True situation: If She has time, She will/Can stay with us. We can use the simple present in a if-clause of the conditional clause and will/can + a simple form of the verb in a result clause: Perhaps she doesnít have time. If that is true, she will stay with us. Contrary-to-fact situations: If she had time, she could/would stay with us. In reality, in true, in fact she doesnít have time. But in the contrary, if the opposite were true she would/could stay.

4- Contrary-to-fact in the past:

- The past perfect tense is used to discuss a past situation in an if-clause. - Would have or could + have + past participle is used in the result clause. True situation: She didnít have time. Making a wish: She wishes she had had time Contrary-to-fact situations: If she had had time, she could/would have written to us a letter. True situation: We werenít ready yesterday. Making a wish: We wish we had been ready. Contrary-to-fact situations: If we had been ready, we could/would have gone.

5- Summary:

Situation:
If-clause result clause
In the present/Future:
True: simple present will/can + simple form
Contrary-to-fact: simple past would/could + simple form
In the past:
Contrary-to-fact: past perfect would have + past participle



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